The Anti-Federalist Papers are a collection of political writings and speeches from the late 1700s that opposed the ratification of the US Constitution. The Anti-Federalists believed that the proposed Constitution threatened the rights and liberties of individual citizens, and they expressed their concerns through a series of essays and speeches that were published in newspapers and other publications.

The Anti-Federalists were particularly concerned about the concentration of power in the hands of the federal government and the lack of explicit protections for individual rights in the Constitution. They feared that the new government would become too powerful and would encroach on the rights and freedoms of the people.

Despite the opposition of the Anti-Federalists, the US Constitution was ratified in 1788 and went into effect in 1789. However, the concerns of the Anti-Federalists led to the addition of the Bill of Rights, the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which specifically protect the rights of citizens.

The Anti-Federalist Papers serve as an important historical record of the early debates about the role and structure of the US federal government, and they continue to be studied and discussed by scholars and citizens interested in the history and development of American democracy.